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Amylyx Pharmaceuticals Announces Publication of Data Showing the Effect of AMX0035 on Plasma Neuroinflammatory Biomarkers in ALS

Amylyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: AMLX) (“Amylyx” or the “Company”) today announced the publication of analyses performed on neuroinflammatory biomarkers using plasma samples from participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from the Phase 2 CENTAUR trial. These findings were published in the peer-reviewed medical journal, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. During the CENTAUR trial, plasma samples were prospectively collected from trial participants for future biomarker analyses. Post hoc analyses were conducted to look at the impact of AMX0035 on biomarkers shown to correlate with ALS disease progression, including chitinase biomarkers such as YKL-40 (also known as chitinase-3-like protein 1), chitinase 1 (CHIT1), and the systemic inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). The results of these post hoc analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in plasma concentrations of YKL-40 and CRP, but not CHIT1, over 24 weeks, with reductions observed as early as Week 12 in participants from the CENTAUR trial.

“Neuroinflammatory biomarkers are important for assessing disease progression and therapeutic response in ALS with chitinases and CRP emerging as potential treatment response biomarkers. Previous studies have shown that levels of YKL-40 in cerebrospinal fluid correlate with ALS disease progression rate, severity, and survival,” said Robert Bowser, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer of Barrow Neurological Institute. “The learnings from these analyses are an important step linking the biological impact of AMX0035 with potential key biomarkers for ALS.”

“Biomarkers linking clinical therapeutic effect with biological changes are of high interest in ALS, and the findings from these analyses suggest that YKL-40 could be a treatment-sensitive biomarker,” said Machelle Manuel, PhD, Head of Global Medical Affairs at Amylyx. “YKL-40 and CRP concentration decreased significantly for the group of participants that received AMX0035 compared to placebo and were correlated with disease progression as measured by the ALSFRS-R, further demonstrating the impact of AMX0035.”

Of the 135 participants in the modified intent-to-treat population (ITT) of the CENTAUR trial, 126 had plasma samples available for these analyses. The analyses showed that geometric least squares (LS) mean YKL-40 and CRP plasma concentrations were 10% and 17% lower, respectively, at Week 12 and approximately 20% and 30% lower, respectively, at Week 24 in the AMX0035 versus placebo group. YKL-40 and CRP concentrations correlated with ALSFRS-R total score and ALSFRS-R slope. Geometric LS mean CHIT1 plasma levels were not significantly different between treatment groups. Further analyses of neuroinflammatory biomarkers are planned in the ongoing Phase 3 PHOENIX trial to confirm these results.


RELYVRIO®, an oral, fixed-dose combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol (known as ursodoxicoltaurine outside of the U.S.), is approved to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in adults in the U.S. and approved with conditions as ALBRIOZA™ for the treatment of ALS in Canada. AMX0035 is being studied for the potential treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases, and Amylyx is exploring its treatment in other populations and regions. The formulation of RELYVRIO, ALBRIOZA, and AMX0035 are identical.

RELYVRIO® (sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol) Safety Information for United States


Risk in Patients with Enterohepatic Circulation Disorders, Pancreatic Disorders, or Intestinal Disorders

RELYVRIO contains taurursodiol, which is a bile acid. In patients with disorders that interfere with bile acid circulation, there may be an increased risk for worsening diarrhea, and patients should be monitored appropriately for this adverse reaction. Pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal malabsorption, or intestinal diseases that may alter the concentration of bile acids may also lead to decreased absorption of either of the components of RELYVRIO. Because different enterohepatic circulation, pancreatic, and intestinal disorders have varying degrees of severity, consider consulting with a specialist. Patients with disorders of enterohepatic circulation (e.g., biliary infection, active cholecystitis), severe pancreatic disorders (e.g., pancreatitis), and intestinal disorders that may alter concentrations of bile acids (e.g., ileal resection, regional ileitis) were excluded from the study; therefore, there is no clinical experience in these conditions.

Use in Patients Sensitive to High Sodium Intake

RELYVRIO has a high salt content. Each initial daily dosage of 1 packet contains 464 mg of sodium; each maintenance dosage of 2 packets daily contains 928 mg of sodium. In patients sensitive to salt intake (e.g., those with heart failure, hypertension, or renal impairment), consider the amount of daily sodium intake in each dose of RELYVRIO and monitor appropriately.


The most common adverse reactions (at least 15% and at least 5% greater than placebo) with RELYVRIO were diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and upper respiratory tract infection. Gastrointestinal-related adverse reactions occurred throughout the study but were more frequent during the first 3 weeks of treatment.

Please click here for RELYVRIO Full U.S. Prescribing Information.

About the CENTAUR Trial

CENTAUR was a multicenter Phase 2 clinical trial in 137 participants with ALS encompassing a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled phase and an open-label long-term follow-up phase. The trial met its primary efficacy endpoint of reducing functional decline as measured by the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R).

Overall, reported rates of adverse events and discontinuations were similar between AMX0035 and placebo groups during the 24-week randomized phase; however, gastrointestinal events occurred with greater frequency (≥2%) in the AMX0035 group. Detailed data from CENTAUR is published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and Muscle & Nerve.

The CENTAUR trial was funded, in part, by the ALS ACT grant and the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge, and was supported by The ALS Association, ALS Finding a Cure (a program of The Leandro P. Rizzuto Foundation), the Northeast ALS Consortium, and the Sean M. Healey & AMG Center for ALS at Mass General.

About Amylyx Pharmaceuticals

Amylyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is committed to supporting and creating more moments for the neurodegenerative community through the discovery and development of innovative new treatments. Amylyx is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts and has operations in Canada and EMEA. For more information, visit and follow us on LinkedIn and X, formerly known as Twitter. For investors, please visit

Forward-Looking Statements

Statements contained in this press release and related comments in our earnings conference call regarding matters that are not historical facts are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. Because such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such statements include, but are not limited to, the potential of AMX0035 (sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol) as a treatment for ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases including Wolfram syndrome and PSP; the Company’s beliefs regarding the benefits of AMX0035 in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, the potential of AMX0035 to be a foundational therapy for ALS the link between biomarker data and clinical effect in ALS; the potential for new pipeline programs and clinical indications for AMX0035; statements regarding regulatory developments; the Company’s expectations regarding its financial performance; and expectations regarding the Company’s longer-term strategy. Any forward-looking statements in this press release and related comments in the Company's earnings conference call are based on management’s current expectations of future events and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from those set forth in or implied by such forward-looking statements. Risks that contribute to the uncertain nature of the forward-looking statements include: the success, cost, and timing of Amylyx’ program development activities, Amylyx’ ability to successfully commercialize RELYVRIO in the United States and ALBRIOZA in Canada, Amylyx’ ability to execute on its commercial and regulatory strategy, regulatory developments, expectations regarding the timing of a decision from the EMA regarding AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, Amylyx’ ability to fund operations, and the impact that global macroeconomic uncertainty, geopolitical instability and public health events, such as COVID-19, will have on Amylyx’ operations, as well as the risks and uncertainties set forth in Amylyx’ United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings, including Amylyx’ Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, and subsequent filings with the SEC. All forward-looking statements contained in this press release and related comments in our earnings conference call speak only as of the date on which they were made. Amylyx undertakes no obligation to update such statements to reflect events that occur or circumstances that exist after the date on which they were made.


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